The Present Perfect
This article will show you how to build the Present Perfect Tense and how to use it. As you will see, an important part of the Present Perfect is the Past Participle, so I suggest you read also the "Past Participle" article.
How to Form the Present PerfectThe basic rule to form the present perfect is:
the conjugated form of "have" + past participle
Examples: He has cleaned the house. We have eaten porridge.
In spoken English, the "have" part is often abbreviated.
Examples: He's cleaned the house. We've eaten porridge.
How to Use the Present PerfectThe present perfect is not used when we know the exact time something happened (at three o'clock, last week, this morning).
These are the situations that use the present perfect.
1. When the result matters
Example: Peter has had five glasses of wine, so he can't drive.
2. When a situation is still in continuing
Example: The show still hasn't started.
3. When a completed action is having an impact on the present
Example: I have forgotten my homework.
4. When an action has been completed very recently
Example: I have just made us fresh coffee.
5. When something has never happened, always happened, happened only once, or happened several times
I have always tried my best.
I have never been to Africa.
I have had a broken bone once.
I have seen the Northern Lights three times.