The Present Participle in English
How to Form the Present ParticipleThe Present Participle is also called "-ing Form". Most of the time, you can form it simply by adding "-ing" to the verb.
Infinitive without "to" + ing
Examples: to go -> going to play -> playing to know -> knowing to sing -> singing
ExceptionsFor some verbs, there are certain exceptions.
1. Verbs with the following endings:
a) vowel + consonant + e
b) vowel + th + e
In this case, the "e" at the end of the verb is cut before the -ing.
to bake -> baking to celebrate -> celebrating to tame -> taming
to shine -> shining to breathe -> breathing to loathe -> loathing
2. Verbs with the ending "ie"
The ending "ie" has to be replaced with "y" before the "-ing".
to die -> dying to lie -> lying to tie -> tying
3. One-syllable verbs with the ending vowel + consonant (except W,X,Y)
The last consonant has to be doubled up.
to get -> getting to swim -> swimming to hop -> hopping
to rub -> rubbing to fit -> fitting to run -> running
W,X, and Y are the exception to this rule.
to glow -> glowing to know -> knowing to relax -> relaxing
4. Two-syllable verbs ending with a stressed vowel + consonant
The consonant is doubled up.
to begin -> beginning to admit -> admitting to regret -> regretting
5. Some verbs with the ending "c"
Often, a "k" is inserted after the "c" before the "-ing".
to mimic -> mimicking to picnic -> picnicking
How to Use the Present ParticipleThe Present Participle is used in the following cases.
1) Continuous Actions
The Present Participle is used in the continuous or progressive tenses, which express continuous actions.
Lara is baking blueberry muffins.
The children were playing in the garden when they heard a loud noise.
1) As a Noun
The Present Participle can also be used as a noun derived from a verb (gerund). The meaning is still the same, but the verb now takes the form of a noun.
After work running is one of my favorite activities.
Her cooking was amazing, so Tom gained 2 pounds in a week.
3) As an Adjective
The Present Participle can also be used as an adjective to describe a noun.
Sheila is a hardworking student.
Anna is a caring wife.
4) In combination with certain expressions of perception (see, hear), movement/ continuation (go, stop, keep) or position (sit, stand)
spend time ... -ing
go ... -ing
prefer ... -ing
Matthew spends a lot of time playing soccer.
When my cat is sad, it stops eating.
Let's go swimming at Kehena tomorrow!
I prefer reading articles over going to school.
Keep studying English and you will be fluent soon.