Gerundio - Present Participle in Spanish

The present participle in Spanish (also called "Gerundio") is a conjugated form of a verb that describes continuous actions. It is similar to the present participle in English.

As an example let us look at the verb "hablar" (to talk):
    Yo estoy hablando (I am talking)

In English the present participle ends in "-ing" while in Spanish it ends in "-ndo".

How to form the regular gerundio

Regular verbs in Spanish end in "ar", "ir" and "er". This is how we form the gerundio:
    ar → -ando
    ir → -iendo
    er → -iendo


    hablar (to talk) → hablando
    vivir (to live) → viviendo
    comer (to eat) → comiendo

Peculiar cases

If the verb stem ends in a vowel, which means that right before "ar", "ir" or "er" there is a vowel, we use "-yendo" instead of "iendo":
    caer (to fall) → cayendo
    leer (to read) → leyendo
    creer (to believe) → creyendo

If the verb stem of an "ir" or "er" verb ends in "ñ" or in "ll" we drop the "i" of "-iendo", because it is already in the sound.

    gruñir (to snarl) → gruñendo

Many verbs don't follow any rules:
    sentir (to feel) → sintiendo
    decir (to say) → diciendo
    morir (to die) → muriendo
    dormir (to sleep) → durmiendo
    mentir (to lie) → mintiendo

How to use the Gerundio in sentences

As mentioned with the help of the gerundio we describe continuous actions in the present, past or in the future. We use the auxiliary verb "estar" in conjunction with the gerundio.

Yo estoy hablando con mi amigo. (I am talking to my friend).
Ella estaba durmiendo en su cama cuando los visitantes llegaron. (She was sleeping in her bed, when the visitors arrived).

Gerundio - Present Participle in Spanish
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